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GMAT怎么学?看看姜维东老师怎么说

2016-11-09 10:37  作者:姜维东  来源:  字号:T|T


本文将对GMAT考试做一个整体和详细的分析目的是为了帮助考生更了解考试并更有效和合理的准备

概况

GMATGraduate Management Assessment Test)所属于GMACGraduate Management Assessment Council,是一个由全球许多著名商学院联合组成的机构),由GMAC委托出题机构做出的一个标准化测试,旨在评测考生是否具有符合商学院所需的能力。GMAT现已被几乎全世界的商学院接受作为商学院申请者的申请条件,除了美国的学校之外,欧洲,亚洲等地区的商学院也认可GMAT成绩。一般用GMAT可以申请工商管理学硕士,管理工程学和工商管理法学硕士、博士学位等。现行的GMAT考试成绩的有效期为5年,每12个月之内可以考5次,每两次考试间隔15天,每次考试报名费250美金。

GMAT的官方网站为www.mba.com考生需要再该网站上进行注册缴费,及选择考试时间和地点等也可以更改或取消考试查询成绩及购买相关考试服务(如Enhanced Score Reporting,加强版成绩单会显示考生每个部分的具体情况供考试后考生分析自己的各方面的表现)。同时考生可以在该网站下载或购买很多练习材料该网站提供免费备考软件GMATPrep,里面有很多可练习的题目并且有两套完整题目,该题目与真实考试风格类似,所以是很好的备考和自我评测的工具。同时官方建议使用《GMA官方指南》作为备考材料,目前市面最新的版本是2017版。

 

、考试内容及分数

GMAT考试内容如下表(中英文对照)

Format of the GMAT® Exam 考试形式

 

Questions题目数量

Timing考试时间

Analytical Writing分析性写作

  Analysis of an Argument 论证分析写作

1

30 分钟

Integrated Reasoning综合推理

  Multi-Source Reasoning多源推理

  Table Analysis表格分析

  Graphics Interpretation图表解读

  Two-Part Analysis二段式分析

12

30 分钟

Optional break休息(可选)

 

 

Quantitative定量推理

  Problem Solving问题求解

  Data Sufficiency数据充分性分析

37

75 分钟

Optional break休息(可选)

 

 

Verbal文本逻辑推理

  Reading Comprehension阅读理解

  Critical Reasoning批判性推理

  Sentence Correction句子改错

41

75 分钟

Total Time考试时长

 

210 分钟

 

 

 

 

 

各部分的分数计算情况如下表所示

题  型

分值区间

Analytical Writing

0-6

Integrated Reasoning

1-8

Quantitative

0-60

Verbal

0-60

Total (Quantitative + Verbal)

200-800

其中,Analytical Writing评分的单位是0.5,评分方式由人和计算机分别评分后取平均分。Integrated Reasoning是线性评分,即答对1题得一分,答对8题即可得到满分。QuantitativeVerbal是自适应评分,分值区间为0-60,最终需要转化为总分200-800的区间理论上满分是60,实际上51分就几乎是满分,52分以上的考生寥寥无几。

对于VerbalQuantitative而言,评分方式是自适应的,即每一道题目的难度取决于之前做过的所有题目的正误情况。在其中,有些题目是不参与到算分体系中的。所以最终的得分和做过的题目的难度有很大关系。当然官方也强调尽量把题目都做完,因为所有的题目都可能参与算分。

 

 

 

(该图片来自于GMAC官方)

上图向我们展示了VerbalQuantitative的基本的评分情况。其中,左侧的纵向箭头代表题目的难易程度,从easyhard;横向箭头代表题目的顺序;右侧的纵向箭头代表最终分数,从lowhigh。开始的题目难度符合该考生所在地区考试题目的平均难度,如果做错该题目,则下一道同类型题目的难度降低;如果做对该题目,则下一道同类型题目的难度增加。以此类推。到最后结束该部分会有一个得分,如上图中的45分。

 

下面我们来分析一下具体得分情况举个例子

                                Scaled Score             Percentile

Analytical Writing

4.0

34%

Integrated Reasoning

6

69%

Quantitative

50

87%

Verbal

34

72%

Total

700

89%

在这个得分情况中,percentile代表该考生在过去三个月全球考生当中得分的排名total89%,则说明其总分要高于89%的同学。

比较好的商学院对于考生VerbalQuantitative的总分的要求在650700之间顶级的商学院(如Stanford)要求在730以上。如果考生考到了800分满分,则不允许在5年之内参加第二次考试。对于Analytical WritingIntegrated Reasoning来说也不能忽视如果分数过低会影响申请的要求尤其是后者一般最好达到一半分数及以上

 

统计数据

根据2015测试年(每年630至次年71日为一个测试年)的统计数据,全球参加GMAT考试的总人数为186868,考试总次数为247432其中女性考生占多数中国考生大部分是本科在校生商科占多数,社会科学和人文科学学科的考生也占了较大比重

在分数统计方面,全球的平均分为550左右,而中国的平均分在590左右,总体来说是略高于全球平均水平。单科方面,Verbal的分数在24左右,低于全球的26.9Quantitative的平均分在46分左右,高于全球的38.6

官方数据显示分值在600-690之间的考生平均准备时间为107小时,700分及以上的考生平均准备时间为121小时。中国考生备考周期大概是考前4-6,考试时期集中在7-12,这主要是因为12月底一般为商学院的申请截止日期。

 

测试能力

GMAT测试考生的能力包括:文本逻辑推理能力,量化分析能力,分析性写作能力的能力,及数据整合能力。不包括:领袖能力本科专业知识,某种特定领域知识,英文口语能力工作技能学习方式情商等

接下来我们对每一个考试部分所考查的能力进行分析并举相关的例子用来说明

(一) Analytical Writing

分析性写作部分测试考生对已知的文章中的逻辑进行合理的评判一般情况下文中的内容是由论据推出结论,不管在论点,论据还是推论过程中都可能存在一些逻辑漏洞考生应分析这些逻辑漏洞给出更合理的建议使得该逻辑更合理

下面给出一个例子

The following appeared as part of an article in a daily newspaper:

“The computerized on-board warning system that will be installed in commercial airliners will virtually solve the problem of midair plane collisions. One plane’s warning system can receive signals from another’s transponder—a radio set that signals a plane’s course—in order to determine the likelihood of a collision and recommend evasive action.”

 

Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion, be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion.

在这个文章中结论是第一句话“某系统将解决飞机冲撞的问题”,论据是第二句话:“飞机的警报系统能收到来自另一架飞机的信号”。这其中存在一些逻辑漏洞。比如文章假设导致飞机冲撞可以由安装警报系统解决,但是实际上可能是由于飞行员操作飞机不当的结果导致飞机冲撞,或者即使安装了该系统,由于飞行员对系统不熟悉,仍然可能发生冲撞。所以考生就可以从文章中这些没有提及的角度去分析文章的逻辑漏洞。

(二) Integrated Reasoning

综合推理部分考查考生应用,评价,推断,辨识和谋划的能力。具体需要考生通过对不同形式及不同来源信息进行阅读后进行评价性输出,从而做到预测事件结果,提出解决方案,做出备选决策等。其中对考生阅读文本和数据的能力及两种能力的结合有一定的要求。

下面给出一个例子

 

 

上图中描述的信息为25个成年人每周的锻炼时间情况。题目所问的是最少的锻炼时间的平均值。所以就要求求出最少锻炼时间的总和除以总人数即可。

(三) Problem Solving

问题求解考查的是考生的基础数学能力,同时能用定量思维解决问题的能力。其中数学的基础知识包括:算数,代数,几何,文字问题。

    下面给出一个例子:

The price of lunch for 15 people was $207.00, including a 15 percent gratuity for service.

What was the average price per person, EXCLUDING the gratuity?

A. $11.73

B. $12.00

C. $13.80

D. $14.00

E. $15.87

题目中问到15个人吃饭的总花费,包括小费。接下来题目问到不包括小费每人平均花费是多少。所以求解方式是用总花费减去小费的费用,然后所得数值除以15即可。

(四) Data Sufficiency

数据充分性分析是测试考生数字信息的相关性和充分性。具体来说是给出两个条件,看能否解决已知的问题。所涉及的基础数学知识和上述的问题求解一样,只是绝大多数题目不需要计算,而只需要判断条件对解决问题是否充分而已。该题型的形式很固定,包括一个结论,两个条件,五个选项(对于所有该题型的题目来说选项都是固定的)。

下面给出一个例子

What is the value of |x|?

(1) x= -|x|

(2) x2 = 4

A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are not sufficient.

在本题中,问题是求x的绝对值。由条件(1)能得出x是负数或零,所以无法准确知道x的绝对值,故无法由条件(1)解决问题;由条件(2)能得出x=2-2,所以x的绝对值是2,故条件(2)可以解决问题。最终答案选择B

(五) Reading Comprehension

阅读理解考查的是考生理解分析并应用已知信息和概念的能力具体考查文章大意,观点态度,逻辑结构,词句语义及作用等。 

  下面给出一个例子:

Biologists have advanced two theories to explain why schooling of fish occurs in so many fish species. Because schooling is particularly widespread among species of small fish, both theories assume that schooling offers the advantage of some protection from predators.

    Proponents of theory A dispute the assumption that a school of thousands of fish is highly visible. Experiments have shown that any fish can be seen, even in very clear water, only within a sphere of 200 meters in diameter. When fish are in a compact group, the spheres of visibility overlap. Thus the chance of a predator finding the school is only slightly greater than the chance of the predator finding a single fish swimming alone. Schooling is advantageous to the individual fish because a predator’s chance of finding any particular fish swimming in the school is much smaller than its chance of finding at least one of the same group of fish if the fish were dispersed throughout an area.

However, critics of theory A point out that some fish form schools even in areas where predators are abundant and thus little possibility of escaping detection exists. They argue that the school continues to be of value to its members even after detection. They advocate theory B, the “confusion effect,” which can be explained in two different ways.

Sometimes, proponents argue, predators simply cannot decide which fish to attack. This indecision supposedly results from a predator’s preference for striking prey that is distinct from the rest of the school in appearance. In many schools the fish are almost identical in appearance, making it difficult for a predator to select one. The second explanation for the “confusion effect” has to do with the sensory confusion caused by a large number of prey moving around the predator. Even if the predator makes the decision to attack a particular fish, the movement of other prey in the school can be distracting. The predator’s difficulty can be compared to that of a tennis player trying to hit a tennis ball when two are approaching simultaneously.

 

According to the passage, theory B states that which of the following is a factor that enables a schooling fish to escape predators?

(A) The tendency of fish to form compact groups

(B) The movement of other fish within the school

(C) The inability of predators to detect schools

(D) The ability of fish to hide behind one another in a school

(E) The great speed with which a school can disperse

文章讲述的是鱼群schooling of fish的作用同时谈到了形成鱼群原因的两个理论其中理论B还有两个解释题目中问到理论B中的一个解释,选项中B所讲述的movement正好切合文中的一个解释。

(六) Critical Reasoning

批判性推理测试考生判断信息的相关性,即信息之间的推理关系。具体考查信息之间的加强,削弱,解释,假设,评价等关系,也会考查句子在文章中的作用。

下面给出一个例子:

Suncorp, a new corporation with limited funds, has been clearing large sections of the tropical Amazon forest for cattle ranching. This practice continues even though greater profits can be made from rubber tapping, which does not destroy the forest, than from cattle ranching, which does destroy the forest.

 

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain why Suncorp has been pursuing the less profitable of the two economic activities mentioned above?

 

(A) The soil of the Amazon forest is very rich in nutrients that are important in the development of grazing lands.

(B) Cattle-ranching operations that are located in tropical climates are more profitable than cattle-ranching operations that are located in cold-weather climates

(C) In certain districts, profits made from cattle ranching are more heavily taxed than profits made from any other industry.

(D) Some of the cattle that are raised on land cleared in the Amazon are killed by wildcats.

(E) The amount of money required to begin a rubber-tapping operation is twice as high as the amount needed to begin a cattle ranch.

    文中谈到对于Suncorp公司来说有个矛盾,即虽然养牛利润相对较少并且破坏森林,但还是要选择养牛。题干问及为什么Suncorp会这么做,E选项谈及养牛启动资金相对较少,所以能很好的解释为什么该公司这么做。

(七) Sentence Correction

    句子改错测试考生对标准书面语中语言使用的准确性及有效性。考生需要根据句子整体的语义的提示挑选五个选项中最合适的一个。

Of all the vast tides of migration that have swept through history, maybe none is more concentrated as the wave that brought 12 million immigrants onto American shores in little more than three decades.

(A) maybe none is more concentrated as

(B) it may be that none is more concentrated as

(C) perhaps it is none that is more concentrated than

(D) maybe it is none that was more concentrated than

(E) perhaps none was more concentrated than

五个选项中A选项和划线部分一样。比较五个选项后发现结尾处有asthan的区别。由于选项中都有more,而more要和than形成语义上的搭配,故保留有than的选项CDE;同时选项在iswas上的区别提示时态不同,根据划线结束后brought的提示,was更合理,故保留E选项。当然也可以根据maybeis的语义重复排除AD

 

综上考生在复习时可以用官方指南作为指导和练习的材料熟悉考试的要求,根据自己的实际情况做好充分准备,更有信心的迎接考试。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GMAT算分方法:GMAT作为自适应考试item response theory为理论依据以统计学算法按照考生在系统参照其能力给出的每到考题上的能力表现计算出一个likelihood function,maximum likelihood estimation——曲线的最高值对应的能力决定了考生的能力值theta,这个theta值会转化成old paper-and-pencil考试中对应的原始分数再转化成标准分从而得出该考生quantverbal部分的成绩这两部分原始分数对应的标准分数就是该考生的总分考生的成绩单上只会显示最后的标准分数,theta值和原始分数都是看不到的。在每次转化过程中都有四舍五入的存在,所以会出现quantverbal成绩相同的两位考生总分不同的情况,因为他们经过统计计算出来的theta值是不同的